How Is Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Treated?
Several options are available for treating the different types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. These options include both skin-directed treatments and systemic treatments. These treatments are sometimes used in combination with each other.
Treatments for Mycosis Fungoides
Treatments for mycosis fungoides include both skin-directed and systemic treatments.
Skin-Directed Treatments for Mycosis Fungoides
For patients with early-stage mycosis fungoides, treatments are aimed directly at the skin rather than the entire body. Skin-directed treatments for mycosis fungoides include:
Topical medicines are applied directly to the skin. The effects of these medicines are strongest in the area where they are applied. Types of topical medicines include:
Systemic Treatments for Mycosis Fungoides
Although mycosis fungoides may be confined to the skin for many years, it can sometimes cause widespread involvement with significant symptoms that may be resistant to skin-directed therapies. In some cases, the disease can spread internally to the lymph nodes or other organs.
Thus, systemic treatments, which affect the entire body, may be necessary. Systemic treatments for mycosis fungoides include:
Although these treatments can help patients control cutaneous lymphoma for many years, they rarely cure the disease. Stem cell transplantation (see below) may be an option for those patients no longer responding to other types of treatment and may be the only chance for a possible cure.
BMC specializes in autologous stem cell transplants, in which a patient’s own stem cells are used as opposed to a donor’s (this kind of transplant is called an allogeneic transplant). Autologous stem cell transplants are relatively safe and have a low risk of serious complications. For patients who have an autologous stem cell transplant, recurrence (the cancer returning) is common.
Autologous transplants do not cure cutaneous lymphoma, and certain problems, such as high fevers from infections, mouth sores, cramps, diarrhea, and low blood and platelet counts, may occur. These side effects can be treated with IV antibiotics, red blood cell and platelet transfusions, and other medications to relieve symptoms.
The Autologous Stem Cell Transplant Program at BMC provides a multidisciplinary team approach for patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. The program maintains accreditation through the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT).
Treatments for Sezary Syndrome
Skin-directed treatments are not typically used to treat Sezary syndrome because the disease involves both the skin and the blood at the time of diagnosis, making this particular type of treatment less effective. Many of the systemic treatments used to treat advanced mycosis fungoides, such as photopheresis, oral retinoids, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy, are also used to treat Sezary syndrome. Chemotherapy or targeted therapy is typically used to treat patients who are no longer responding to other forms of treatment. A stem cell transplant might also be a possibility for patients for whom other forms of treatment are no longer effective.
Treatments for Lymphomatoid Papulosis
Immediate treatment for lymphomatoid papulosis is unnecessary if the disease is at a low-level involvement and isn’t causing the patient any symptoms. If treatment is necessary, the most common options for patients with only a few skin lesions are phototherapy and topical corticosteroids. Systemic treatments, such as oral retinoids or low-dose methotrexate (a chemotherapy drug), can be used to treat patients with more extensive skin involvement.
Treatments for Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma
Physicians commonly use surgery or radiation therapy to treat single or small groups of lesions. Systemic medicines, such as methotrexate, retinoids, or targeted therapy, can be used to treat cases of C-ALCL that involve more skin. Systemic chemotherapy is often used to treat C-ALCL that has spread internally.
Treatments for Subcutaneous Panniculitis-Like T-Cell Lymphoma
The prognosis (outlook) for subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma is generally excellent. Patients with the disease are able to live a long time. The disease can often be controlled for an extended period of time using just corticosteroids. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy have also been used to successfully treat the disease.
Treatments for Primary Cutaneous Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Unspecified
Primary Cutaneous Aggressive Epidermotropic CD8+ Cytotoxic T-Cell Lymphoma
Physicians use systemic therapies to treat this fast-growing type of lymphoma.
Primary Cutaneous Gamma/Delta T-Cell Lymphoma
Physicians treat primary cutaneous gamma/delta T-cell lymphoma using systemic chemotherapy or radiation therapy. This fast-growing type of lymphoma tends to behave aggressively.
Primary Cutaneous CD4+ Small/Medium Pleomorphic T-Cell Lymphoma
This type of lymphoma can be treated in several ways. If only a single tumor or a few lesions are present, as is often the case, surgery can be used to remove the tumor, or it can be treated with radiation therapy. The prognosis for this particular type of lymphoma is typically good, especially if only a single tumor is present.
Primary Cutaneous Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Unspecified
This type of lymphoma can be treated using systemic chemotherapy with some success. However, the disease can be very difficult to treat if it recurs.
How Is Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma Treated?
Most cases of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma are slowly progressive conditions that can be managed by local injection of steroids into the lesions or localized radiation therapy. When the lesions are widespread, targeted therapy that is given as an IV infusion is often required.
Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the leg is typically an aggressive condition and is usually managed with a combination of chemotherapy with or without targeted therapy.
BMC’s comprehensive cutaneous lymphoma team includes physicians who work in dermatology, dermatopathology, hematology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, and surgical oncology. The team’s patient-centered, multidisciplinary approach assures each patient benefits from the collaborative expertise of physicians uniquely focused on their individual needs.
Cancer Clinical Trials
BMC offers a number of clinical trials specifically for patients with cutaneous lymphoma. Promising new techniques in the diagnosis, treatment, and care of patients with cancer are tested in these studies. The number and types of clinical trials available are constantly changing. View an up-to-date list of ongoing trials here. Those interested in participating in any clinical trials at BMC should talk with their physician.
Cancer Support Services
A diagnosis of cancer can be a life-altering experience. The team at Boston Medical Center understands that cancer affects patients and their loved ones in many ways. The team is here to support patients during all aspects of care—from diagnosis through treatment and recovery. The Cancer Support Services Program is dedicated to providing patients and their loved ones with a comprehensive set of services that address a wide range of needs. Services include:
- Cancer support/discussion groups
- Support activities
- Special programs and events
- Complementary services
Patients have the option of working with a patient navigator who may be able to provide support services related to their care. Patient navigators frequently assist with:
- Appointment reminders
- Helping patients understand complex treatment schedules
- Insurance questions
- Interpreter services
- Connecting patients to Cancer Support Services programs and events
- Referrals to community resources
Social workers are available to provide additional support services to patients and families and to help with emotional, psychological, and social service needs. They are available on inpatient and outpatient units. Social workers can meet with patients before or after their other appointments. Patients can discuss these options with their physician or ask for a referral.
Patients who have concerns about their diet and nutrition during the course of their cancer treatment can meet with one of BMC’s nutritionists to discuss their dietary concerns. Nutritionists are also available to meet with patients before or after their other appointments. Patients can talk with their physician or social worker if they are interested in seeing a nutritionist.
American Cancer Society. 2014. Lymphoma of the Skin. PDF.
Cutaneous Lymphoma Foundation. 2012. A Patient’s Guide to Understanding Cutaneous Lymphoma. PDF.
Lymphoma Association. 2013. Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma.
Lymphoma Research Foundation. 2013. Getting the Facts: Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (CTCL). PDF.